Eight types of A356 Al–fly ash composites were produced by pressure infiltration of high-Ca lignite fly ash. This type of ash was used for the first time in Al-composites synthesis, and particularly by liquid metal infiltration techniques. After examining mineralogy and chemistry, specific, narrow ash size fractions were used for the synthesis of composites, and properties linked to microstructure and wear strength of the materials. The effect of using ground ash particles on the microstructure and tribological performance of the composites was also investigated. It was concluded that using fine, high-Ca ash particles can improve the properties of composites, and that using ash particles in a ground form can better facilitate the production process of MMCs