This paper deals with the numerical three-dimensional prediction of the induced flow patterns around and inside a building, which is cross-ventilated in a natural way. The air change rate is controlled by two opposite openings on the building envelope, as a function of wind velocity and its incidence angle. The numerical methodology is based on the finite volume numerical solution of the Navier–Stokes equations, using the CFD commercial code FLUENT. The numerical results are compared with available experimental data regarding the refresh rate of the building's room and the relative velocity profiles at the window openings, indicating a good agreement. Furthermore, a detailed description of the natural ventilation process is provided, whilst additional information regarding the induced velocity and pressure field is presented; information which cannot be easily extrapolated by experimental methodologies. Finally, the impact of the inner topology of the building on the induced flow field is investigated.

Keywords: Numerical simulation, Natural cross-natural ventilation, Building, Air-change rate