The paper presents a three-dimensional numerical investigation of a droplet impinging normally onto a wall film. The numerical method is based on the finite volume solution of the Navier–Stokes equations coupled with the volume of fluid method (VOF) and utilizing an adaptive local grid refinement technique for tracking more accurately the liquid–gas interface. The results are compared with available experimental data for integral quantities such as the lamella temporal development. Two mechanisms are identified leading to secondary droplet formation; in the initial and intermediate stages of splashing secondary droplet formation is according to Rayleigh instability while at later times surface tension effects contribute further to secondary atomization. Moreover, the influence of Weber number on the impingement process is investigated and correlations for the diameter and number of secondary droplets are proposed.
Keywords: Deposition, Splashing, Lamella, Liquid film, Volume of fluid method