Coal is the most abundant of the fossil fuels and the most evenly distributed as well. Consequently, many countries use mainly coal in power utilities as means of attempting to maximise their energy self-dependency and minimise imports. Thus, most Balkan countries have a very significant dependence on coal. The vast majority of coal is combusted in relatively inefficient Pulverised Fuel (PF) boilers with high emission levels. Moreover, while electricity demand is expected to be increased in the next few years, a great number of coal-fired power plants in these countries is over-aged and has to be retrofitted or replaced by new installations. Taking into account the public opposition to coal-fired technologies, the environmental restrictions imposed, and the properties of the main competitive fuel, the natural gas, the future of coal lies upon CCTs, such as the Fluidised Bed Combustion (FBC) technology. FBC units have been operated successfully since the early 80s and this technology looks promising due to the fuel flexibility and the low flue gas emissions. In this paper the penetration possibilities of FBC technology in the Balkan countries are investigated taking under consideration the technological status of the existing coal-fired plants, the future integration of some Balkan countries in the EU and the forthcoming liberalisation of the power utilities. A brief review of related RTD projects carried in Greece is also presented.