Cleaner Fossil Fuel OPET


WP3. Promotion of CCT Implementation Options in Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants



In the framework of this work-package promotion of Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) is attempted in East European countries, Russia, South Caucasus countries, the Balkans, India and China. Activities included collection of analytical information for each country, evaluation of the existing situation and identification of the retrofitting options that can be applied. Data collection included structural, legislative and technological aspects of existing power plants, fuels used for electricity generation, further needs and planned development, while it helped creating an inventory of the current situation in assessed countries. Specifically for the Russian power sector, scenarios for retrofitting options, according to specific analysis criteria, have been developed and are presented. In general, a good picture of the power sector in each country has been recorded, and an inventory of the current situation in assessed countries was created.

Moreover, developments in Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) and possible implementations through European know-how transfer have been presented in regional workshops and international conferences, while CCT promotion also included articles submission in scientific journal, distribution of newsletters, meeting discussions, site visits at TPPs and dissemination of work-package results through partner and CFF OPET web sites.





WP Leader







CE.R.T.H./I.S.F.T.A. Subcontarctors:





Objective and Strategic Aspects


Socio-Economic Objectives


        Enhancing security of supply in partner countries by means of domestic fuel utilisation and diversification (including poor quality fuels)

        Preservation and development of mining and utilisation of local fossil fuels, resulting in improved employment prospects in related sectors and reduction of imported fuel cost

        Promotion of European technologies in new promising markets



Contribution to EU Policies


        Clean Coal Technologies constitute a European developed option for retrofitting the solid-fuel power sector. Their promotion is in accordance with EU support of sustainable development, since CCT implementations result in fuel flexibility and availability, reduced operating and maintenance costs, while environmental standards and compliance with international agreements can be met

        Promotion of CCT is also in accordance with EU policies of supporting the rehabilitation of local industries, the enhancement of renewable energy sources exploitation and the establishment of a contemporary legislative framework



Scientific/Technical Objectives and Innovation


        Promotion of advanced European technology to promising markets, which may lead to increased efficiency and improved environmental performance in power generation

        Utilisation of domestic fuels, including poor quality and problematic ones



Results - Deliverables




Solid Fuel Power Sector of India, China, East European, South Caucasus and Balkan Countries

Current Situation – CCT Implementation Possibilities


All partners involved



The report consists of 13 parts analytically describing the coal-fired power sector of each country. In each part there are sections describing the electricity generation status, the coal-fired power plant park, the ownership and technical status, fuels used for electricity generation and future trends. Especially for Russia, there is a section illustrating the potential introduction of CCTs through renovation activities.

The countries that are under investigation are Russia, Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro, Romania, FYR of Macedonia, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, Georgia, Azerbaijan, India and China.

In terms of coal reserves the above mentioned countries own more than one third of the world total coal reserves (BP statistical review 2003) with Russia, India and China owning 15.9%, 8.6% and 11.6%, respectively. As far as electricity production is concerned the countries that are under investigation produce more than 21% of the world-produced energy.

Future trends in electricity generation in each country reveal that coal and lignite will continue to play key role in power production. Country reports are focused on effiency and environmental performance of coal-fired units, problems encountered during their operation and possible options for rehabilitation projects. CCT implementation possibilities are quite promising due to poor efficiency, high emissions and age of too many operating units. Experience of retrofitting old units with new ones of advanced technology is presented, as well as plans to implement any CCT technologies in each country. Support in implementing modern technologies by large-scale or research projects is described and their financing opportunities. The need to compete price and availability of other fuels, such as natural gas, is illustated in growing markets.

Reserves of other than coal solid fuels, such as oil shale, peat and biomass, and their potential exploitation are presented in countries with insignificant coal reserves. CCT implementations for such fuel are also considered. Joint projects for power production from solid fuels are investigated as well.





          Kakaras E., Grammelis P., Skodras G. and Vourliotis P., “Fluidised Bed Combustion with the Use of Greek Solid Fuels”, Thermal Science – An International Journal, 2003, 7(2), 33-42

          Grammelis P., Skodras G. and Kakaras E., “Thermal Exploitation of Wastes with Lignite for Energy Production”, Journal of Air and Waste Management Association, 2003, 53(11), 1301-1311

          Skodras G., Grammelis P., Kakaras E. and Sakellaropoulos G.P., “Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of Waste Wood Co-utilisation for Energy Production”, Energy – The International Journal, in press (EGY 1225)

          Skodras G., Karlopoulos Ev. and Kakaras E., “Financial Support Possibilities for Clean Coal Technologies – An Overview”, submitted to Technika Chronika, Scientific Journal of the Greek Technical Chamber

          Kakaras E., Grammelis P., Skodras G. and Vourliotis P., “Experience on Combustion and Co-combustion of Greek Brown Coal in Fluidised Bed Facilities”, in 17th International Conference on Fluidised Bed Combustion, Proceedings, Jacksonville, Florida, USA, May 18-21, 2003

          Skodras G., Diamantopoulou Ir., Amarantos P., Orfanoudaki Th. and Sakellaropoulos G.P., “Study and Mathematical Modelling of Mercury Adsorption on Activated Carbons”, 4th Greek National Conference in Chemical Engineering, Proceedings (ISBN 960-418-011-8), pp. 1025-1028, Patras, Greece, May 29-31, 2003

          Dragos L., Macavescu M., Girjoaba M. and Ionel I., “Coal Drying in Fluidized Bed Using Flue Gas”, 4th International Symposium on “Fluidised Beds in Energy Production, Chemical and Process Engineering, and Ecology”, Proceedings (ISBN 960-86076-1-2), pp. 55-58, Thessaloniki, Greece, April 3-4, 2003

          Amarantos P., Skodras G. and Kakaras E., “FBC Utilisation Prospects in Decentralised Cogeneration Units in Caucasus Region Countries”, 4th International Symposium on “Fluidised Beds in Energy Production, Chemical and Process Engineering, and Ecology”, Proceedings (ISBN 960-86076-1-2), pp. 191-200, Thessaloniki, Greece, April 3-4, 2003

          Dragos L., Flueraru C., Scarlat N. and Macavescu M., “Romanian Experience and Possibilities for Fluidised Bed Combustion of Coal and Co-combustion of Biomass and Petroleum Wastes”, 4th International Symposium on “Fluidised Beds in Energy Production, Chemical and Process Engineering, and Ecology”, Proceedings (ISBN 960-86076-1-2), pp. 205-212, Thessaloniki, Greece, April 3-4, 2003

          Kakaras E., Tumanovsky A.G., Koukouzas N., Karlopoulos Ev. and Kotler V.R., “The Implementation of Technological Methods for Suppressing Nitrogen Oxides at the Russian Coal-fired Power Plants”, accepted at 5th European Conference on Coal Research and its Applications, 6-8 September 2004, University of Edinburgh

          Kakaras E., Tumanovsky A.G., Kotler V.R., Koukouzas N. and Karlopoulos Ev., “Current Situation of Coal fired Power Plants in Russia Federation and the Implementation Options of Clean Coal Technologies”, accepted at 5th European Conference on Coal Research and its Applications, 6-8 September 2004, University of Edinburgh

          Groseva, V. and Zhabinski, I., “Cleaner and More Effective Solutions for Utilization of Lignite with High Sulphur Content”, submitted to Bulgarian related journal

          Javakhishvili, T., “Use of Pure Technologies of Fossil Energy Burning in Georgia”, Mining Journal, 1-2 (10-11), 2003, pp. 64-67





1.         Title

4th International Symposium for promotion of “Fluidised Beds in Energy Production, Chemical Engineering and Ecology”


April 3rd – 4th, 2003

CE.R.T.H. facilities – Thermi area, Thessaloniki, Greece



Partners involved



1st Day


Inaugural Session

Session 1 – Combustion

Session 2 – Drying

Session 3 – Heat & Mass Transfer


2nd Day

Session 4 – Operation

Session 5 – Applications

Session 6 – Environmental Performance


List of Participants

Representatives from construction companies, industries, governmental experts as well as energy specialists from Research Centres and Universities, mostly from Balkan countries (Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and FYROM), rest of Europe (Finland, Austria), and Canada, participated in the Symposium, which facilitated the contact between them, in order to establish strong partnerships for large energy projects. Total number of participants: 59. Special attention must be given to the participation of representatives from Foster Wheeler Energia Oy (Fi), Can Met CETC/NR (Ca), AE&E (Au), RAFAKO SA (Pl) and PPC (Gr).



Technological Scope

The aim of the Workpackage is to promote Clean Fossil Fuels Technologies through alternative renovation options, applicable to existing power plants with operational problems in the candidate and new promising countries, in order to ensure a cleaner and more efficient operation. Following this line, the main scope of the Symposium was the promotion of FBC technology to energy policy makers and coal users, through the presentation of the benefits, the environmental friendly and high efficient performance of the specific “clean coal” technology.


Technological Results – Conclusions

During the Symposium, the advantages of FBC technology were properly stressed out. FBC is a mature technology, tested and implemented widely in EU countries. The specific technology was agreed to be the most proper technology to be used in the Balkan countries, due to the poor coal quality and the large potential of co-combustion with wastes and biomass.

Representatives from large manufacturers EU companies had the chance to meet with representatives of power plants, energy specialists and governmental experts and develop a personal contact with them. The given situation in each country was presented, and the already implemented technology was presented, along with some success cases. This fact will facilitate the implementation of FBC technology to the Balkan countries, with the respective environmental benefits.

For additional information please contact Ms Aggeliki Diafa



2.         Title

Regional workshops in Russia

A. Site visit at Shaturskaya GRES-5 TPP and mini workshop focusing on “High Moisture Lignites in Power Industry”


B. Mini workshop on “Coal gasification for economic and environmental improvement of TPPs”



A. April 15th, 2004

     Shaturskaya GRES-5 TPP, Moscow, Russia


B. April 16th, 2004

     VTI facilities, Moscow, Russia




Partners involved



Three presentations were made in each workshop, followed by round-table discussions


List of Participants

A. 10 managers & employees of Shaturskaya GRES-5, 5 VTI members and 1 CERTH/ISFTA representative. 16 participents in total


B. 2 members of university faculty, 1 CERTH/ISFTA representative and VTI members. Total number of participants: 34



Presentation made on the following subjects:

           Experience earned from utilising high-moisture and poor quality coal in power production

           Operational facts from peat utilisation in electricity generation

           Advantages of CFB implementations for burning high-moisture coals

           Problems encountered in solid fuel gasification

           Overview and development prospects of Georgian coal industry


Round-table discussions that followed were mainly focused on

           Operational experience from coal and lignite utilisation

           Liberalisation of the energy market, prerequisites and barriers, and the Greek experience



Site visits

The BSREC team of experts performed site visits to the following TPPs:

          Varna TPP, Maritza Iztok 2 and 3 TPPs, Bobov dol TPP (Bulgaria)

          Bitola TPP (the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia)

          Nikola Tesla TPP (Serbia)

The results of turbine reconstructions in thermal power plants Bitola and Maritza Iztok 2 as well as FGD facility implementation in Maritza Iztok 2 TPP were discussed during all visits.  The rehabilitation plans implementation in Maritza Iztok 3 and Bitola TPP were subject to examination and dissemination as well.