Cleaner Fossil Fuel OPET


WP10. Promotion of Decentralised Tri-generation Units for the Operation of DHC Systems in the Balkan Countries


In its Green Paper (1998), the European Commission has set an ambitious target to capture an 18% share of total electricity to be produced from Cogeneration. The foundation of the European energy policy is built on factors like Environment Protection, Security of Supply, Energy Conservation and Competitiveness, where much emphasis is always on Environment. Cogeneration, wich is Combined Heat and Power (CHP), and the CHP evolved Trigeneration, which is Combined Cooling, Heat and Power (CCHP), constitute technologies that have the possibility to meet all these basic demands, which lead to self-promotion as a favourable choice for cleaner and efficient energy production. Distributed Generation is a new trend foreseen in Europe and Western countries today. Deregulation of the energy markets, security of energy supply and the RES incentives open up for Distributed Generation (Embedded Generation or Distributed Energy). Distributed Generation, especially with local energy sources, plays an important role in sustainable development.

Therefore, the aim of this work-package is the promotion of decentralised cogeneration and trigeneration units in Balkan countries, while focusing on solid fuel employment and implementations utilised in District Heating (DH) and District Heating and Cooling (DHC) systems The main objective of the work-package is the development of a CD-ROM that demonstrates CHP – CCHP and decentarlised energy production advantages over conventional separate electricity, heat and cooling production and distribution. Topics covered are such that the developed CD-ROM may become a tool for trigeneration promotion, providing basic and advanced knowledge, identifying possible implementations in the Balkan countries, enhancing EU know-how transfer to the SEEC, and demonstrating such technologies advantages to the specific needs of potential users.

Dissemination activities include distribution of CD-ROM copies to target groups, such as power utilities, municipalities, industry employees, national authorities, academics, development agencies and consulting companies, as well as article submission in related journal, a workshop presentation and internet dissemination through partner and CFF OPET web sites




CEntre for Reasearch and Technology Hellas

Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CE.R.T.H./I.S.F.T.A.) – GREECE



Oskar von Miller-Conception, Research and Design Institute for Thermal Power Equipment


Black Sea Regional Energy Centre




Objective and Strategic Aspects

Socio-Economic Objectives


        European policy trends forced equipment suppliers for CHP and CCHP to incorporate features needed to address the requirements like being environmentally friendly and contributing to lower emissions of NOx. Also, the competitive environment in the power market has further accentuated the need for highly efficient, reliable and longer lasting equipment available at competitive price. Furthermore, the security in supply policy has resulted in a diversification of technologies in order to make use of local/domestic fuels. Therefore, decentralised CHP – CCHP implementations contribute to:

o         Increased security of supply

o         Imported fuel cost reduction

o         Efficient and environmental friendly energy production at competitive costs

o         Reliable heat-cooling and power distribution

        Moreover, construction and operation of decentralised CHP-CCHP units:

o         increase employment opportunities

o         contributes to regional economic development

        Briefly, such technology implementations may contribute to sustainable development



Contribution to EU Policies


Promotion of decentralised CHP-CCHP technologies is a EU policy, as expressed in European Commission’s “Green Paper”:

        Decentralised CHP-CCHP technologies offer the advantage of domestic fuels exploitation, including poor quality fuels, biomass and wastes. According to the “Green Paper”, efforts should be made to promote new and renewable energy sources (such as hydrogen and cogeneration) in our economies. The European Union has set itself an ambitious target in this respect: 12% of energy consumption in 2010 should come from Renewables

        Promotion of decentralised CHP-CCHP is in accordance to EU policy for energy development, since it offers the means to improve energy efficiency, reduce energy intensity and vastly increase the share of clean, durable and renewable energy use. It also has a potential to influence global patterns of energy use and production, as advanced European technologies can provide developing countries with more sustainable and less damaging means towards economic growth

        Implementations of such technologies contribute to reduction of gaseous emissions in power generation and compliance with the Kyoto protocol restrictions



Scientific/Technical Objectives and Innovation


        Promotion of advanced European technology to Balkan countries’ energy market, in order to achieve increased output efficiency, better fuel utilisation and fuel flexibility by enabling poor quality fuel combustion, better environmental performance of thermal units, reduction of imported fuel cost, and increased power and heat supply reliability

        The introduction of decentralised CHP-CCHP units constitutes an economically attractive way to cover power, heat and cooling demands of industrial utilities, the agricultural and the residential sector, regardless of geographical location



Results – Deliverables


CD-ROM Combined Power, Heat and Cooling
Present Status –Success Cases – Advanced Technologies



          Skodras G., Amarantos P. and Kakaras E., “FBC Utilisation Prospects in Decentralised Cogeneration Units in Caucasus Region Countries” Thermal Science – An International Journal, 2003, 7(2), 17-32

          Stavropoulos G. and Skodras G., “The Use of Exergy for Evaluating Environmental Impact of Energy Processes”, submitted to the Bulletin of the Hellenic Association of Chemical Engineers

          Stavropoulos G. and Skodras G., “Energy Savings at Military Installations – A Case Study”, submitted to the Bulletin of the Hellenic Association of Mechanical Engineers

          Stavropoulos G. and Skodras G., “Wood Residue Combustion for Energy conservation”, submitted to Technika Chronika, Scientific Journal of the Greek Technical Chamber

          Skodras G., Panousis B., Amarantos P.S. and Kakaras E., “Efficient Implementation of DH Technology for Domestic Heating in Greece”, submitted to Technika Chronika, Scientific Journal of the Greek Technical Chamber

          Skodras G., Amarantos P.S., Papadopoulou E. and Kakaras E., “Utilisation of Landfill-gas for Energy Production – Operational Experience from a 13.8 MWe Power Plant”, submitted to the Bulletin of the Hellenic Association of Chemical Engineers